I landed on a article on the NFB's website. They had a list on that article of most common eye conditions. I googled keywords "most common eye conditions" with blind being a wild card keyword. Then I found a even better list. One for the most common conditions that cause vision impairment and a secondary for just vision loss. I have most of the articles on my computer. All I gotta do is edit (that'll happen when I get home from my trip.)and post. Now not all are going to have images or diagrams but I will try my best to find some to go with each eye condition via google search.
I have 5 for vision impairment and 17 for blindness. And the list as a whole only a couple I couldn't find info on this one website I frequent.
As always: Source of article and images will be at the bottom of each article (just in case you wanna print and use in a book report on your eye condition.).